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  • Recurrent Drug-Eluting Stent In-Stent Restenosis: A State-of-the-Art Review of Pathophysiology, Diagnosis, and Management


    Recurrent in-stent restenosis (R-ISR) refers to the re-occlusion of a successfully treated in-stent restenosis. Much of the present understanding of this condition stems from studies on in-stent restenosis, as literature on R-ISR is sparse. Compounded by multiple previous struts, narrower luminal diameters and worse patient profiles, R-ISR is a clinical challenge that demands urgent attention. Recent studies have explored various diagnostic and therapeutic strategies to identify and suitably manage R-ISR. In this review, we discuss our understanding of the risk factors, invasive and non-invasive imaging techniques, therapeutic options and gaps in present knowledge for the management of R-ISR.

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