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  • Endovascular Management of Femoropopliteal In-Stent Restenosis: A Systematic Review

    Despite the development of new therapies for the treatment of femoropopliteal disease, nitinol stents remain a mainstay of therapy following balloon angioplasty. Consequently, femoropopliteal in-stent restenosis (FP-ISR) remains an important clinical problem. Interventions used to treat de novo lesions of the femoropopliteal segment have been used to treat ISR lesions, with disappointing outcomes. Early interventions focused on repeat balloon angioplasty, cryoplasty, and various debulking therapies. Recently, treatment has shifted towards the use of stent-grafts, drug-eluting therapies, and combination therapies. This review analyzes the evidence behind each treatment modality and provides insight into future directions for optimal endovascular management of FP-ISR.

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