Surgical endarterectomy with or without patch angioplasty has been considered the gold standard for treatment of symptomatic common femoral artery (CFA) disease. Surgical risks include wound infection, hematoma and lymph leak in approximately 17% of patients. Endovascular therapy has less procedure-related morbidity and mortality. Endovascular approaches achieve patency rates of 60% to 90% at 1 and 2 years utilizing atherectomy and balloon angioplasty. CFA stenting has been limited due to concerns of stent kinking, thrombosis and restenosis. Combined directional atherectomy with drug-coated balloon to treat CFA disease in patients with Rutherford II/III patients has been studied recently. We sought to study the safety and outcomes of adjunct drug-coated balloon (DCB) therapy in symptomatic CFA disease patients, including critical limb ischemia (Rutherford IV), after achieving procedural success.
To evaluate the additive efficacy of drug coated balloon in treating CFA disease.
Using retrospective single center data, we analyzed the outcomes of patients who underwent CFA interventions. In this non-randomized study, all patients from December 2010 to December 2014 with CFA disease underwent atherectomy (orbital, plaque excision or both) with adjunctive scoring balloon angioplasty (Ath/PTA). After December 2014, patients treated with combination atherectomy and DCB, (Ath/DCB), underwent final drug delivery to the vessel wall with drug-coated balloon. Distal embolic protection devices were used in the majority of patients. Primary efficacy endpoint was 1-year primary patency and freedom from clinically driven target lesion revascularization (CD-TLR). Patency of vessels was assessed at 12-month interval using duplex ultrasound.
Seventy de novo common femoral artery stenotic lesions were treated in both groups. Mean age was 69 in (Ath/PTA) group and 72 in Ath/DCB group. Patients in each group had similar risk factor profiles including diabetes mellitus, hypertension, smoking, coronary artery disease, myocardial infarction, prior coronary revascularization, congestive heart failure, cerebrovascular accidents and chronic kidney disease. The Ath/DCB group had more advanced disease presentation by Rutherford classification (intermittent claudication in 61% and critical limb ischemia in 39% versus intermittent claudication in 76% and chronic limb ischemia in 24%) when compared with the Ath/PTA group. Primary efficacy endpoint was met in 85% and 94% (p = 0.26) in the Ath/PTA and Ath/DCB groups respectively. All patients had run-off angiography at the end of procedure to ensure patency.
Adjunctive drug-coated balloon therapy does not increase the primary patency rate when compared with atherectomy and scoring balloon angioplasty alone at 1-year in common femoral artery disease treatment.
- Endovascular approach can achieve 100% technical success in CFA disease.
- DCB treatment with atherectomy can achieve 1-year patency >90%.
- One year primary patency rate is not significantly different in DCB and PTA groups.
Cardiovascular Revascularization Medicine, Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc.
Read the full article on Science Direct: Efficacy and safety of adjunctive drug-coated balloon therapy in endovascular treatment of common femoral artery disease