Contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) is a common complication following coronary angiography with or without percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) regardless of baseline renal function. It is associated with prolonged hospitalization and increased in-hospital mortality and morbidity [ ]. The initial description of CIN was in case reports during the 1950s following the development of acute renal failure after intravenous pyelography in patients with renal disease arising from multiple myeloma [ ]. Following coronary angiography or PCI, the incidence of CIN in the general population is between 1% and 2% and reaches up to 50% in certain high-risk subgroups [ ]. Among all hospital-acquired acute kidney injury cases, CIN accounts for a third of those cases [ ]. The incidence of CIN has been increasing because of the increased utilization of primary PCI for the treatment of acute myocardial infarction. This, coupled with higher contrast dye volumes, poor rapid CIN risk tool assessments, myocardial infarction-related hemodynamic derangements, and the rising patient population age, has led to the development of major challenges in the prevention of CIN [ ].
Read the full article: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carrev.2020.08.032