Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TTC) is characterized by transient left ventricular (LV) dysfunction, electrocardiographic changes that can mimic acute myocardial infarction (MI), and release of myocardial enzymes in the absence of obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD). Conventionally, gross visual assessment of LV angiogram has been used to classify TTC. We aim to compare quantitative assessment of different regions of LV on angiogram and segmental strain on transthoracic echo to determine a better way to classify TTC rather than conventional qualitative visual assessment.
We conducted a retrospective observational study of 20 patients diagnosed with TTC who had LV angiogram and transthoracic echocardiograms performed on presentation that were suitable for analysis. Twenty LV angiograms were analyzed using Rubo DICOM viewer software. Areas of different LV regions were measured in diastole and systole, and percentage changes in area of these regions were calculated. Percentage changes in area of less than 10% was considered “akinetic." On the other hand, using echocardiograms of these patients, LV regional longitudinal strain (LS) was derived from speckle-tracking analysis. These findings were compared to determine concordance between both modalities.
On quantitative analysis of 20 LV angiograms, the area of all the three LV regional (apex, mid ventricle, and base) shortening (>10%) was observed in 16 patients (80%) during systole as compared to diastole. However, only 4 out of 20 patients (20%) were noted to have apical region area change of <10% between diastole and systole. Analysis of LV regional LS patterns of 20 patients showed that 14 patients had abnormal values (> −18%) in all three LV regions: apex, mid ventricle, and base. The apical region was the most severely affected region (mean LS −13.9%), followed by the basal region (mean −14.7%) and the mid ventricular region (mean −15.1%). Comparing the results of both modalities showed that there was 35% (n = 7) concordance in the results noted for base and apical regions of the LV, whereas only 20% (n = 4) concordance was noted in mid ventricular region.
Contractility (shortening) on LV angiogram is present in a majority of patients in the three LV regions, but contractility assessed by LS is impaired in most of them. The concordance in both quantitative assessment modalities was low. LV angiogram may not be an accurate imaging modality to assess contractility patterns in Takotsubo patients, and echocardiographic LS analysis should be taken as the preferred imaging modality.
Cardiovascular Revascularization Medicine Volume 27, June 2021, Pages 45-51
Read the full article on Science Direct: Comparison of Contractility Patterns on Left Ventriculogram Versus Longitudinal Strain by Echocardiography in Patients With Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy