• Association Between Poverty and Appropriate Statin Prescription for the Treatment of Hyperlipidemia in the United States: An Analysis From the ACC NCDR PINNACLE Registry


    • We sought to determine the association of appropriate lipid therapy with income level to potentially explain these poorer outcomes using the NCDR PINNACLE Registry.
    • There was a small association between appropriate statin use and income under different types of guidelines. Before November 2013 the Point-Biserial Correlation Coefficient was 0.035, and after November 2013 was 0.026.
    • Prior to November 2013, 68-73% of patients who needed lipid therapy were treated appropriately, and between November 2013-2016, after the publication of the ACC/AHA Guidelines, only 57-62% of patients were treated appropriately.
    • Further investigation into barriers preventing the use of evidence-based therapies in poorer populations is needed.



    Poverty is associated with a higher risk of myocardial infarction and cardiac death, both of which are decreased by treatment of hyperlipidemia. There may be differences in the appropriate treatment of hyperlipidemia between richer and poorer Americans. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the association between income level and appropriate lipid-lowering therapy.


    We identified outpatient visits in the National Cardiovascular Data Registry's Practice Innovation and Clinical Excellence (PINNACLE) Registry and determined appropriateness of lipid-lowering therapy among patients in different income quintiles (Quintile 5 being the highest income quintile). Logistic regression at the patient level was performed to evaluate the independent association of income and the primary outcome of appropriate statin therapy. The analysis was repeated before and after November 2013 given a change in guideline definitions.


    The study included 1,655,723 patients. Overall, 68–73% of patients were treated appropriately under the ATP III Guidelines and 57–62% of patients were treated appropriately under the ACC/AHA Guidelines. Patients in the wealthiest quintile had higher odds of appropriate statin therapy under both guidelines relative to patients in the poorest quintile (OR 1.06 [1.05–1.07] for ATP III and OR 1.03 [1.01–1.04] for ACC/AHA). In the whole sample, patients with higher estimated income had a small but significant increased likelihood of appropriate statin therapy (point-biserial correlation 0.035 [p < 0.001] for ATP III and 0.026 [p < 0.001] for ACC/AHA).


    Here we describe a small association between appropriate statin use and income. Further investigation into barriers in the use of evidence-based therapies in poorer populations is needed.


    View full article: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carrev.2019.12.026

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